Marine Species Distribution changes in Latitude

#### Alaska

Eastern Bering Sea

*Values indicate annual cumulative change in centroid across all species in a region in degrees N*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2014 and 2018 the average species latitudinal shift showed no significant trend but remained much higher than historical values.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 95 indicates that between 2014 and 2018 the average species latitudinal shift was very high compared to the median average latitudinal shift between 1981 and 2018

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year latitudinal shift is very low compared to the median value.
- 10 - 25: The five-year latitudinal shift is much lower than the median value.
- 25 - 50: The five-year latitudinal shift is lower than the median value.
- 50: The five-year latitudinal shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year latitudinal shift is higher than the median value.
- 75 - 90: The five-year latitudinal shift is much higher than the median value.
- 90 - 100: The five-year latitudinal shift is very high compared to the median value

**Indicator Source Information:**

This data provides important information for fisheries management including which species are caught where and at what depth. The scientists at Ocean Adapt use this data to calculate each species’ centroid as the mean latitude and depth of catch in the survey, weighted by biomass. The centroid for each species is calculated for each year after standardizing the data to ensure that the measure is consistent over time despite changes in survey techniques and total area surveyed. A northern change in the centroid of latitude could result from the expansion of the northern edge of a species range, the contraction of the southern edge of a species range, or both.

**Data Background and Caveats:**

The regional and national marine species distributions shown here represent the average shift in the centroid of species caught in surveys conducted in each region. These species represent a wide range of habitats and species types. As species distributions respond to many environmental and biological factors, combining data from multiple diverse species allows for a more complete picture of the general trends in marine species distribution. In order to more easily track and display changes in these distributions, the first year is standardized to zero. Thus, the indicator represents relative change in distribution from the first survey year.

#### Alaska

Gulf of Alaska

*Values indicate annual cumulative change in centroid across all species in a region in degrees N*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2013 and 2017 the average species latitudinal shift shows no significant trend.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 64 indicates that between 2013 and 2017 the average species latitudinal shift was higher than the median average latitudinal shift between 1984 and 2017.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year latitudinal shift is very low compared to the median value.
- 10 - 25: The five-year latitudinal shift is much lower than the median value.
- 25 - 50: The five-year latitudinal shift is lower than the median value.
- 50: The five-year latitudinal shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year latitudinal shift is higher than the median value.
- 75 - 90: The five-year latitudinal shift is much higher than the median value.
- 90 - 100: The five-year latitudinal shift is very high compared to the median value

**Indicator Source Information:**

This data provides important information for fisheries management including which species are caught where and at what depth. The scientists at Ocean Adapt use this data to calculate each species’ centroid as the mean latitude and depth of catch in the survey, weighted by biomass. The centroid for each species is calculated for each year after standardizing the data to ensure that the measure is consistent over time despite changes in survey techniques and total area surveyed. A northern change in the centroid of latitude could result from the expansion of the northern edge of a species range, the contraction of the southern edge of a species range, or both.

**Data Background and Caveats:**

The regional and national marine species distributions shown here represent the average shift in the centroid of species caught in surveys conducted in each region. These species represent a wide range of habitats and species types. As species distributions respond to many environmental and biological factors, combining data from multiple diverse species allows for a more complete picture of the general trends in marine species distribution. In order to more easily track and display changes in these distributions, the first year is standardized to zero. Thus, the indicator represents relative change in distribution from the first survey year.

#### Gulf of Mexico

*Values indicate annual cumulative change in centroid across all species in a region in degrees N*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2015 and 2019 the average species latitudinal shift shows a decreasing trend, indicating a southward shift in distributions.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 45 indicates that between 2015 and 2019 the average species latitudinal shift was lower than the median average latitudinal shift between 2008 and 2019.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year latitudinal shift is very low compared to the median value.
- 10 - 25: The five-year latitudinal shift is much lower than the median value.
- 25 - 50: The five-year latitudinal shift is lower than the median value.
- 50: The five-year latitudinal shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year latitudinal shift is higher than the median value.
- 75 - 90: The five-year latitudinal shift is much higher than the median value.
- 90 - 100: The five-year latitudinal shift is very high compared to the median value

**Indicator Source Information:**

This data provides important information for fisheries management including which species are caught where and at what depth. The scientists at Ocean Adapt use this data to calculate each species’ centroid as the mean latitude and depth of catch in the survey, weighted by biomass. The centroid for each species is calculated for each year after standardizing the data to ensure that the measure is consistent over time despite changes in survey techniques and total area surveyed. A northern change in the centroid of latitude could result from the expansion of the northern edge of a species range, the contraction of the southern edge of a species range, or both.

**Data Background and Caveats:**

The regional and national marine species distributions shown here represent the average shift in the centroid of species caught in surveys conducted in each region. These species represent a wide range of habitats and species types. As species distributions respond to many environmental and biological factors, combining data from multiple diverse species allows for a more complete picture of the general trends in marine species distribution. In order to more easily track and display changes in these distributions, the first year is standardized to zero. Thus, the indicator represents relative change in distribution from the first survey year.

#### Northeast

Spring

*Values indicate annual cumulative change in centroid across all species in a region in degrees N*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2014 and 2018 the average species latitudinal shift showed no significant trend but remained much higher than historical values.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 93 indicates that between 2014 and 2018 the average species latitudinal shift was very high compared to the median average latitudinal shift between 1980 and 2018.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year latitudinal shift is very low compared to the median value.
- 10 - 25: The five-year latitudinal shift is much lower than the median value.
- 25 - 50: The five-year latitudinal shift is lower than the median value.
- 50: The five-year latitudinal shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year latitudinal shift is higher than the median value.
- 75 - 90: The five-year latitudinal shift is much higher than the median value.
- 90 - 100: The five-year latitudinal shift is very high compared to the median value

**Indicator Source Information:**

**Data Background and Caveats:**

#### Southeast

Spring

*Values indicate annual cumulative change in centroid across all species in a region in degrees N*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2013 and 2017 the average species latitudinal shift showed an increasing trend, indicating a northward shift in distribution.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 76 indicates that between 2013 and 2017 the average species latitudinal shift was much higher than the median average latitudinal shift between 1989 and 2017.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year latitudinal shift is very low compared to the median value.
- 10 - 25: The five-year latitudinal shift is much lower than the median value.
- 25 - 50: The five-year latitudinal shift is lower than the median value.
- 50: The five-year latitudinal shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year latitudinal shift is higher than the median value.
- 75 - 90: The five-year latitudinal shift is much higher than the median value.
- 90 - 100: The five-year latitudinal shift is very high compared to the median value

**Indicator Source Information:**

**Data Background and Caveats:**

#### California Current

*Values indicate annual cumulative change in centroid across all species in a region in degrees N*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2014 and 2018 the average species latitudinal shift showed no significant trend but remained much higher than historical values.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 81 indicates that between 2014 and 2018 the average species latitudinal shift was much higher than the median average latitudinal shift between 2003 and 2018.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year latitudinal shift is very low compared to the median value.
- 10 - 25: The five-year latitudinal shift is much lower than the median value.
- 25 - 50: The five-year latitudinal shift is lower than the median value.
- 50: The five-year latitudinal shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year latitudinal shift is higher than the median value.
- 75 - 90: The five-year latitudinal shift is much higher than the median value.
- 90 - 100: The five-year latitudinal shift is very high compared to the median value

**Indicator Source Information:**

**Data Background and Caveats:**

Marine Species Distribution Changes in Water Column Depth

#### Alaska

Eastern Bering Sea

*Values Indicate annual cumulative change in average species centroid depth in meters - for example, a value of -5 indicates the species centroid moving deeper by 5m.*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2014 and 2018 the average species water column depth shift showed no significant trend.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 59 indicates that between 2014 and 2018 the average species water column depth shift was higher than the median average water column depth shift between 1981 and 2018 with species moving towards the surface.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year water column depth shift is very high compared to the median value with species moving deeper.
- 10 - 25: The five-year water column depth shift is much higher than the median value with species moving deeper.
- 25 - 50: The five-year water column depth shift is higher than the median value with species moving deeper.
- 50: The five-year water column depth shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year water column depth shift is higher than the median value with species moving towards the surface.
- 75 - 90: The five-year water column depth shift is much higher than the median value with species moving towards the surface.
- 90 - 100: The five-year water column depth shift is very high compared to the median value with species moving towards the surface.

**Indicator Source Information:**

This data provides important information for fisheries management including which species are caught where and at what depth. The scientists at Ocean Adapt use this data to calculate each species’ centroid as the mean latitude and depth of catch in the survey, weighted by biomass. The centroid for each species is calculated for each year after standardizing the data to ensure that the measure is consistent over time despite changes in survey techniques and total area surveyed.

**Data Background and Caveats:**

The regional and national marine species distributions shown here represent the average centroid of all species caught in every year of the surveys. These species represent a wide range of habitats and species types. As species distributions respond to many environmental and biological factors, combining data from multiple diverse species allows for a more complete picture of the general trends in marine species distribution. In order to more easily track and display changes in these distributions, the first year is standardized to zero. Thus, the indicator represents relative change in distribution from the first survey year.

#### Alaska

Gulf of Alaska

*Values Indicate annual cumulative change in average species centroid depth in meters - for example, a value of -5 indicates the species centroid moving deeper by 5m.*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2013 and 2017 the average species water column depth shift shows no significant trend.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 50 indicates that between 2013 and 2017 the average species water column depth shift was the median average water column depth shift between 1984 and 2017.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year water column depth shift is very high compared to the median value with species moving deeper.
- 10 - 25: The five-year water column depth shift is much higher than the median value with species moving deeper.
- 25 - 50: The five-year water column depth shift is higher than the median value with species moving deeper.
- 50: The five-year water column depth shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year water column depth shift is higher than the median value with species moving towards the surface.
- 75 - 90: The five-year water column depth shift is much higher than the median value with species moving towards the surface.
- 90 - 100: The five-year water column depth shift is very high compared to the median value with species moving towards the surface.

**Indicator Source Information:**

This data provides important information for fisheries management including which species are caught where and at what depth. The scientists at Ocean Adapt use this data to calculate each species’ centroid as the mean latitude and depth of catch in the survey, weighted by biomass. The centroid for each species is calculated for each year after standardizing the data to ensure that the measure is consistent over time despite changes in survey techniques and total area surveyed.

**Data Background and Caveats:**

The regional and national marine species distributions shown here represent the average centroid of all species caught in every year of the surveys. These species represent a wide range of habitats and species types. As species distributions respond to many environmental and biological factors, combining data from multiple diverse species allows for a more complete picture of the general trends in marine species distribution. In order to more easily track and display changes in these distributions, the first year is standardized to zero. Thus, the indicator represents relative change in distribution from the first survey year.

#### Gulf of Mexico

*Values Indicate annual cumulative change in average species centroid depth in meters - for example, a value of -5 indicates the species centroid moving deeper by 5m.*

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2015 and 2019 the average species water column depth shift shows an increasing trend.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 36 indicates that between 2015 and 2019 the average species water column depth shift was higher than the median average water column depth shift between 2008 and 2019 with species moving deeper.

*Gauge Values*

- 0 - 10: The five-year water column depth shift is very high compared to the median value with species moving deeper.
- 10 - 25: The five-year water column depth shift is much higher than the median value with species moving deeper.
- 25 - 50: The five-year water column depth shift is higher than the median value with species moving deeper.
- 50: The five-year water column depth shift average equals the median value.
- 50 - 75: The five-year water column depth shift is higher than the median value with species moving towards the surface.
- 75 - 90: The five-year water column depth shift is much higher than the median value with species moving towards the surface.
- 90 - 100: The five-year water column depth shift is very high compared to the median value with species moving towards the surface.

**Indicator Source Information:**

This data provides important information for fisheries management including which species are caught where and at what depth. The scientists at Ocean Adapt use this data to calculate each species’ centroid as the mean latitude and depth of catch in the survey, weighted by biomass. The centroid for each species is calculated for each year after standardizing the data to ensure that the measure is consistent over time despite changes in survey techniques and total area surveyed.

**Data Background and Caveats:**

The regional and national marine species distributions shown here represent the average centroid of all species caught in every year of the surveys. These species represent a wide range of habitats and species types. As species distributions respond to many environmental and biological factors, combining data from multiple diverse species allows for a more complete picture of the general trends in marine species distribution. In order to more easily track and display changes in these distributions, the first year is standardized to zero. Thus, the indicator represents relative change in distribution from the first survey year.

#### Northeast

Spring

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2014 and 2018 the average species water column depth shift shows no significant trend.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 9 indicates that between 2014 and 2018 the average species water column depth shift was very high compared to the median average water column depth shift between 1980 and 2018 with species moving deeper.

*Gauge Values*

- 50: The five-year water column depth shift average equals the median value.

**Indicator Source Information:**

**Data Background and Caveats:**

#### Southeast

Spring

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2013 and 2017 the average species water column depth shift showed an increasing trend.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 30 indicates that between 2013 and 2017 the average species water column depth shift was higher than the median average water column depth shift between 1989 and 2017 with species moving deeper.

*Gauge Values*

- 50: The five-year water column depth shift average equals the median value.

**Indicator Source Information:**

**Data Background and Caveats:**

#### California Current

**Description of Time Series: **Between 2014 and 2018 the average species water column depth shift shows no significant trend.

**Description of Gauge: **The gauge value of 19 indicates that between 2014 and 2018 the average species water column depth shift was much higher than the median average water column depth shift between 2003 and 2018 with species moving deeper.

*Gauge Values*

- 50: The five-year water column depth shift average equals the median value.

**Indicator Source Information:**

**Data Background and Caveats:**

## Resources

#### NOAA Distribution Mapping and Analysis Portal

Given the potential impacts of shifting distributions on sustainable fisheries management, and the cross-jurisdictional nature of the issue, it is crucial that scientists and managers have access to information on historic and projected stock distributions for use in decision-making. NOAA collects extensive information on the distribution of species through surveys, and is increasingly conducting research into the distributions of fish stocks, however access to this information is not consistent across the regions.

The Distribution Mapping and Analysis Portal (DisMAP) consolidates data on species distributions into one user-friendly and interactive website. It provides tools for exploring changes in marine fish and invertebrate distributions through time. Our mission is to:

- Improve ease of access to and exploration of species distribution data
- Support decision-makers to use this spatial data for insight and informing decisions, such as fishing closed areas, marine protected areas, allocations, stock boundaries, survey designs
- Foster sharing and exchange of practices and ideas among scientists working on species distribution modeling.

This effort grew out of and builds off of the OceanAdapt website, a successful collaboration between the Rutgers University (Pinsky Lab), NOAA Fisheries and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. The DisMAP will continue to provide information previously provided by OceanAdapt, and expand to incorporate additional data types, model outputs and functionality over time.

#### Ocean ADAPT

OceanAdapt is a collaboration between Rutgers University, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) to provide information about the impacts of changing climate and other factors on the distribution of marine life to the National Climate Assessment, fisheries communities, policymakers, and to others. This website hosts an annually updated database of scientific surveys in the United States and Canada, providing tools for exploring changes in marine fish and invertebrate distributions.