Click on the Indicators below for More Information
Pacific Islands Region map

The Hawaii-Pacific Islands Region includes the State of Hawai‘i, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and various uninhabited remote Pacific Islands. The combined coastline is 2,930.5 kilometers, and the combined land area is 17,842 square kilometers. The population density in this region is relatively high, especially in the State of Hawai’i. High density coastal populations often place inordinate stressors on coastal ecosystems leading to detrimental effects on flora and fauna i.e. point source and non point source pollution.    

The region is home to the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal - only 1,400 remain - as well as other iconic and threatened species such as green sea turtles, spinner dolphins, false killer whales, and humpback whales. Coral reefs support about 25% of this region's marine life, but these also face challenges from natural event impacts and human activities, such as coral bleaching and disease, marine debris, pollution, and ocean acidification.

Over 90% of the ocean-related employment in this region is in the tourism and recreation sector.

 

Understanding the Gauge plots

The gauge plots that accompany the indicator time series are meant to reflect the current status of that ecosystem component at the regional or national level. The numerical scores are determined as the percentile rank of the average (mean) value of that indicator over the last five years of the time series, relative to the series as a whole. The values typically represent quantitative scores, with more desirable conditions in the darker blue. Thus, some gauges are "right-handed" with the higher values being in darker blue, whereas other gauges are "left-handed" with lower values being in darker blue (indicating that lower values are preferable). In some instances (e.g. climate measures), the scores represented are unitless and are presented as two-way gauges, indicating that either high or low scores are observed, implying neither higher nor lower values are necessarily preferred.

Lefthand Gauge
Left Hand Gauge
Righthand Gauge
Right Hand Gauge
Two-Way Gauge
Two-Way Gauge

Understanding the Time series plots

Time series plots show the changes in each indicator as a function of time, over the period 1980-present. Each plot also shows horizontal lines that indicate the median (middle) value of that indicator, as well as the 10th and 90th percentiles, each calculated for the entire period of measurement. Time series plots were only developed for datasets with at least 10 years of data. Two symbols located to the right of each plot describe how recent values of an indicator compare against the overall series. A black circle indicates whether the indicator values over the last five years are on average above the series 90th percentile (plus sign), below the 10th percentile (minus sign), or between those two values (solid circle). Beneath that an arrow reflects the trend of the indicator over the last five years; an increase or decrease greater than one standard deviation is reflected in upward or downward arrows respectively, while a change of less than one standard deviation is recorded by a left-right arrow.

Graph

Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)

During the last five years, the PDO indicator has trended downward, shifting from positive phase to negative phase in 2019.

PDO

Values correspond to Index scores

Description of time series:

Positive PDO values typically mean cool surface water conditions in the interior of the North Pacific Ocean and warm surface waters along the North American Pacific Coast while negative PDO conditions typically mean warm surface water conditions in the interior to the North Pacific Ocean and cool surface waters along the North American Pacific Coast. During the last five years, the PDO indicator has trended downward, shifting from positive phase to negative phase in 2019.

 

Description of gauge:

The unitless two-way gauge depicts whether the average of the last 5 years of data for the climate indicator is above or below the median value of the entire time series. High or low gauge values mean recent values are unusually high or low relative to the entire data record.

 

Description of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO):

The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a long-term pattern of Pacific climate variability. The extreme phases of this climatic condition are classified as warm or cool, based on deviations from average ocean temperature in the northeast and central North Pacific Ocean. When the PDO has a positive value, sea surface temperatures are below average (cool) in the interior North Pacific and warm along the Pacific Coast. When the PDO has a negative value, the climate patterns are reversed, with above average sea surface temperatures in the interior and sea surface temperatures below average along the North American coast. The PDO waxes and wanes; warm and cold phases may persist for decades. Major changes in northeast Pacific marine ecosystems have been correlated with phase changes in the PDO. Warm phases have seen enhanced coastal ocean biological productivity in Alaska and inhibited productivity off the west coast of the United States, while cold PDO phases have seen the opposite, north-south pattern of marine ecosystem productivity. We present data from the Pacific Islands, Alaska, and California Current regions.

 

Data Background:

Climate indicator data was accessed from the NOAA NCEI (https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/pub/data/cmb/ersst/v5/index/ersst.v5.pdo.dat). The data plotted are unitless and based on Sea Surface Temperature anomalies averaged across a given region

 

East Pacific - North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index (EP-NP)

During the last five years, the EP-NP indicator has shifted phase from mostly positive to mostly negative.

EPNP

Values correspond to Index scores

Description of time series:

Positive EP-NP values mean above-average surface temperatures over the eastern North Pacific, and below-average temperatures over the central North Pacific and eastern North America and the opposite for negative EP-NP values. During the last five years, the EP-NP indicator has shifted phase from mostly positive to mostly negative.

 

Description of gauge:

The unitless two-way gauge depicts whether the average of the last 5 years of data for the climate indicator is above or below the median value of the entire time series. High or low gauge values mean recent values are unusually high or low relative to the entire data record.

 

Description of East Pacific/ North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index:

The East Pacific/ North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index is a measure of climate variability. Positive EP-NP values mean above-average surface temperatures over the eastern North Pacific, and below-average temperatures over the central North Pacific and eastern North America and the opposite for negative EP-NP values.

 

This climate condition impacts people and ecosystems across the globe and each of the indicators presented here. Interactions between the ocean and atmosphere alter weather around the world and can result in severe storms or mild weather, drought, or flooding. Beyond “just” influencing the weather and ocean conditions, these changes can produce secondary results that influence food supplies and prices, forest fires and flooding, and create additional economic and political consequences. The positive phase of the EP-NP pattern is associated with above-average surface temperatures over the eastern North Pacific, and below-average temperatures over the central North Pacific and eastern North America. The main precipitation anomalies associated with this pattern reflect above-average precipitation in the area north of Hawaii and below-average precipitation over southwestern Canada.

 

Data Background:

Climate indicator data was accessed from Columbia University (https://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.NOAA/.NCEP/.CPC/.Indices/.NHTI…). The data plotted are unitless anomalies and averaged across a given region. 

 

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (Oceanic Niño Index)

The ONI indicator changed from positive to negative during the summer of 2020, and has since shown a “double dip” La Niña.

ONI

Values correspond to Index scores

Description of time series:

The Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) is NOAA’s primary index for monitoring the El Niño-Southern Oscillation climate pattern. It is based on Sea Surface Temperature values in a particular part of the central equatorial Pacific, which scientists refer to as the Niño 3.4 region. The ONI shows a shift from El Nino to La Nina conditions in 2020, followed by a brief period of ENSO-neutral conditions, and then another dip to La Nina conditions in 2021. This pattern is sometimes called a “double dip” La Nina. 

Description of gauge:

The unitless two-way gauge depicts the most recent seasonal value for the ONI showing how far it is above or below the median value of the entire time series. High or low gauge values mean recent values are unusually high or low relative to the entire data record.

 

Description of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO):

El Niño and La Niña are opposite phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a cyclical condition occurring across the Equatorial Pacific Ocean with worldwide effects on weather and climate. During an El Niño, surface waters in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific become warmer than average and the trade winds - blowing from east to west - greatly weaken. During a La Niña, surface waters in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific become much cooler, and the trade winds become much stronger. El Niños and La Niñas generally last about 6 months but can extend up to  2 years. The time between events is irregular, but generally varies between 2-7 years. To monitor ENSO conditions, NOAA operates a network of buoys, which measure temperature, currents, and winds in the equatorial Pacific. 

 

This climate pattern impacts people and ecosystems around the world. Interactions between the ocean and atmosphere alter weather globally and can result in severe storms or mild weather, drought or flooding. Beyond “just” influencing the weather and ocean conditions, these changes can produce secondary results that influence food supplies and prices, forest fires and flooding, and create additional economic and political consequences. For example, along the west coast of the U.S., warm El Niño events are known to inhibit the delivery of nutrients from subsurface waters, suppressing local fisheries. El Niño events are typically associated with fewer hurricanes in the Atlantic while La Niña events typically result in greater numbers of Atlantic hurricanes.

 

Data Background:

ENSO ONI data was accessed from NOAA’s Earth Systems Research Laboratory (https://psl.noaa.gov/data/timeseries/monthly/ONI/). The data are plotted in degrees Celsius and represent Sea Surface Temperature anomalies averaged across the so-called Niño 3.4 region in the east-central tropical Pacific between 120°-170°W.

 

Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index (MEI)

The MEI indicator changed from positive to negative during the summer of 2020, and has since shown La Niña conditions.

MEI

Values correspond to Index scores

Description of time series:

Like the Oceanic Niño Index, positive MEI values indicate warm, El Niño conditions and negative MEI values indicate cold, La Niña conditions. The MEI indicator changed from positive to negative during the summer of 2020, and has since shown La Niña conditions.

 

Description of gauge:

The unitless two-way gauge depicts the most recent seasonal value for the MEI showing how far it is above or below the median value of the entire time series. High or low gauge values mean recent values are unusually high or low relative to the entire data record.

 

Description of Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index:

The Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index (MEI) is a more holistic representation of the atmospheric and oceanic conditions that occur during ENSO events and characterizes their intensity. MEI is determined from five variables from the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (Sea-level pressure, surface wind components, sea surface temperature, surface air temperature, and cloudiness), while ENSO ONI is calculated from only two (sea surface temperature and trade wind strength). This index is calculated twelve times per year for each sliding bi-monthly season i.e. Dec-Jan, Jan-Feb, Feb-Mar, etc. We present data from the Pacific Islands, Alaska, and California Current regions.

 

This climate condition impacts people and ecosystems across the globe and each of the indicators presented here. Interactions between the ocean and atmosphere alter weather around the world and can result in severe storms or mild weather, drought, or flooding. Beyond “just” influencing the weather and ocean conditions, these changes can produce secondary results that influence food supplies and prices, forest fires and flooding, and create additional economic and political consequences.

Data Background:

MEI data was accessed from NOAA’s Earth Systems Research Laboratory (https://psl.noaa.gov/enso/mei/). The data plotted are unitless anomalies.

 

Sea Surface Temperature - Hawaiian Islands

The mean sea surface temperature between 2016 and 2021 for the Hawai‘i–Pacific Islands region was higher than 89% of the temperatures between 1985 and 2021.

HI SST

Sea surface temperature is defined as the average temperature of the top few millimeters of the ocean. Sea surface temperature monitoring tells us how the ocean and atmosphere interact, as well as providing fundamental data on the global climate system

 

Data Interpretation:

Time series: The time series shows the integrated sea surface temperature for the Hawaiian Islands region. During the last five years there has been no notable trend but values were above the 90th percentile of all observed data in the time series.

Gauge: The gauge value of 89 indicates that the mean sea surface temperature between 2016 and 2021 for the Hawai‘i–Pacific Islands region was higher than 89% of the temperatures between 1985 and 2021.

 

Indicator and source information:

The SST product used for this analysis is the NOAA Coral Reef Watch CoralTemp v3.1 SST composited monthly (https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/5km/index_5km_sst.php) accessed from CoastWatch (https://oceanwatch.pifsc.noaa.gov/erddap/griddap/CRW_sst_v3_1_monthly.g…). 

Great Lakes SST data were accessed from (https://coastwatch.glerl.noaa.gov/glsea/glsea.html). 

The data are plotted in degrees Celsius. 

 

Data background and limitations:

The NOAA Coral Reef Watch (CRW) daily global 5km Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product, also known as CoralTemp, shows the nighttime ocean temperature measured at the surface. The CoralTemp SST data product was developed from two, related reanalysis (reprocessed) SST products and a near real-time SST product. Monthly composites were used for this analysis.

Sea Level

The sea level between 2016 and 2021 for the Hawai‘i–Pacific Islands region was higher than 95% of the sea level between 1980 and 2021.

HI Level

Sea level varies due to the force of gravity, the Earth’s rotation and irregular features on the ocean floor. Other forces affecting sea levels include temperature, wind, ocean currents, tides, and other similar processes.

 

Description of time series:

The time series shows the relative sea level, water height as compared to nearby land level, for the Hawai‘i–Pacific Islands region. During the last five years there has been no notable trend but values were above the 90th percentile of all observed data in the time series.

 

Description of gauge:

The gauge value of 95 indicates that the sea level between 2016 and 2021 for the Hawai‘i–Pacific Islands region was higher than 95% of the sea level between 1980 and 2021.

 

Indicator and source information:

NOAA monitors sea levels using tide stations and satellite laser altimeters. Tide stations around the globe tell us what is happening at local levels, while satellite measurements provide us with the average height of the entire ocean. Taken together, data from these sources are fed into models that tell us how our ocean sea levels are changing over time. For this site, data from tide stations around the US were combined to create regionally averaged records of sea-level change since 1980. We present data for all regions.

 

Data background and limitations:

Sea level data presented here are measurements of relative sea level, water height as compared to nearby land level, from NOAA tide gauges that have >20 years of hourly data served through NOAA’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) Tides and Currents website. These local measurements are regionally averaged by taking the median value of all the qualifying stations within a region. The measurements are in meters and are relative to the year 2000.

Heatwave Intensity - American Samoa

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

AS HDD

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for American Samoa. During the last five years there has been no trend and values have remained above the 90th percentile of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 90 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Intensity - Guam & the Northern Mariana Islands

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was significantly higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Guam

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for the Guam and CNMI region. During the last five years there has been a significant increasing trend and values have remained above the 90th percentile of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 92 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was significantly higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Intensity - Hawaiian Islands

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

HI HDD

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for the Hawaiian Insular LME region. During the last five years there has been no trend and values have remained above the 90th percentile of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 90 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Intensity - Howland & Baker Islands

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

HDD

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for Howland and Baker Islands. During the last five years there has been no trend and values have remained between the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 73 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Intensity - Jarvis Island

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was significantly higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Jarvis HDD

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series:  This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for Jarvis Island. During the last five years there has been a significant decreasing trend and values have remained above the 90th percentile of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 93 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was significantly higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Intensity - Johnson Atoll

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was significantly higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

JOhnson HDD

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series:  This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for Johnson Atoll. During the last five years there has been no trend and values have remained above the 90th percentile of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 95 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was significantly higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Intensity - Kingman Reef & Palmyra Atoll

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Kingman HDD

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series:  This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll region. During the last five years there has been no trend and values have remained between the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 89 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Intensity - Wake Island

Between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Wake HDD

Values indicate cumulative annual heatwave intensity and duration in a region in degree-days

Description of Time Series:  This time series shows the average integrated degree day value for the Wake Island region. During the last five years there has been no trend and values have remained between the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 87 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average integrated degree day value was much higher than the median average integrated degree day value between 1982 and 2021.

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year integrated degree day value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year integrated degree day value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year integrated degree day value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year integrated degree day value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year integrated degree day value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year integrated degree day value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year integrated degree day value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days.

Heatwave Area - American Samoa

The gauge value of 89 means that recent heatwave area coverage is much higher than the median value  since the start of this record in 1982.

AmSamoa

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for the American Samoa Region. During the last five years there has been no significant trend and the five-year mean is within the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 89 means that recent heatwave area coverage is much higher than the median value  since the start of this record in 1982.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Guam + CNMI

The gauge value of 94 means that recent heatwave area coverage value was very high compared to the median value between 1982 and 2021.

Guam and CNMI Heat

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for Guam and CNMI Region. During the last five years heatwave coverage has trended upward and the five-year mean is higher than the 90th percentile of all observations in this record.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 94 means that recent heatwave area coverage value was very high compared to the median value between 1982 and 2021.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Hawaiian Insular LME

The gauge value of 92 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was very high compared to the median area fraction between 1982 and 2021.

Hawaii

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for the Hawaiian Insular LME Region. During the last five years heatwave coverage has trended upward and the five-year mean is higher than the 90th percentile of all observations in this record.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 92 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was very high compared to the median area fraction between 1982 and 2021.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Howland + Baker Islands

The gauge value of 84 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average  area fraction value was much higher than the median value between 1982 and 2021.

Howland

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for Howland and Baker Islands. During the last five years there has been no significant trend and the five-year mean is within the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 84 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average  area fraction value was much higher than the median value between 1982 and 2021.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Jarvis Island

The gauge value of 82 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was much higher than the median value between 1982 and 2021.

Jarvis

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for Jarvis Island. During the last five years there has been no significant trend and the five-year mean is within the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 82 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was much higher than the median value between 1982 and 2021.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Johnson Atoll

The gauge value of 92 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was very high compared to the median value between 1982 and 2021.

Johnson

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for Johnson Atoll. During the last five years there has been no significant trend but the five-year mean is higher than the 90th percentile of all observations in this record.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 92 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was very high compared to the median value between 1982 and 2021.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Kingman Reef + Palmyra Atoll

The gauge value of 89 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was much higher than the median area fraction between 1982 and 2021.

Kingman

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll. During the last five years there has been a significant downward trend and the five-year average is within the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 89 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was much higher than the median area fraction between 1982 and 2021.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Wake Island

The gauge value of 87 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was much higher than the median value between 1982 and 2021.

Wake

Values indicate monthly percent of an LME area affected by heatwave

Description of Time Series: This time series shows the monthly heatwave spatial coverage for Wake Island. During the last five years there has been no significant trend and the five-year average is within the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 87 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average area fraction value was much higher than the median value between 1982 and 2021.

 

Gauge Values

  • 0 - 10: The five-year area fraction value is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year area fraction value is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year area fraction value is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year area fraction value average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year area fraction value is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year area fraction value is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year area fraction value is very high compared to the median value.

Indicator Source Information:

The marine heatwave data shown here are calculated by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information using Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) data. The NOAA 1/4° OISST is a long term Climate Data Record that incorporates observations from different platforms (satellites, ships, buoys and Argo floats) into a regular global grid. The dataset is interpolated to fill gaps on the grid and create a spatially complete map of sea surface temperature. Satellite and ship observations are referenced to buoys to compensate for platform differences and sensor biases.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Heatwave metrics are calculated using OISST, a product that uses some forms of interpolation to fill data gaps. Heatwaves are defined by Hobday et al., 2016 as distinct events where SST anomaly reaches the 90th percentile in a pixel for at least 5 days, separated out by 3 or more days

Chlorophyll-a - Hawaiian Islands

Between 2016 and 2021 the average concentration levels of chlorophyll a in the Hawaiian Islands region were considerably lower than the long term median of all chlorophyll a concentration levels between 1998 and 2021.

ChlA

Chlorophyll a, a pigment produced by phytoplankton, can be measured to determine the amount of phytoplankton present in water bodies. From a human perspective, high values of chlorophyll a can be good (abundance of nutritious diatoms as food for fish) or bad (Harmful Algal Blooms that may cause respiratory distress for people), based on the associated phytoplankton species.

 

Data Interpretation:

Time series: This time series shows the average concentration levels of chlorophyll a for the Hawaiian Islands region. During the last five years there has been a significant upward trend and values have remained within the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Gauge: The gauge value of 33 indicates that between 2016 and 2021 the average concentration levels of chlorophyll a in the Hawaiian Islands region were considerably lower than the long term median of all chlorophyll a concentration levels between 1998 and 2021.

 

Gauge values

0–10: Chlorophyll a was significantly lower than the long term median state.

10–25: Chlorophyll a was considerably lower than the long term median state.

25–50: Chlorophyll a was slightly lower than the long term median state.

50: Chlorophyll a was at the long term median state.

50–75: Chlorophyll a was slightly higher than the long term median state.

75–90: Chlorophyll a was considerably higher than the long term median state.

90–100: Chlorophyll a was significantly higher than the long term median state.

 

 

Indicator and source information:

Chlorophyll a concentration values for this indicator were obtained using the ESA OC-CCI product, a merged product from the European Spatial Agency (ESA) that is a validated, error-characterized, Essential Climate Variable (ECV) and climate data record (CDR) from satellite observations specifically developed for climate studies. The dataset (v5.0) is created by band shifting and bias-correcting SeaWiFS, MODIS, VIIRS and OLCI data to match MERIS data, merging the datasets and computing per-pixel uncertainty estimates. Source: https://climate.esa.int/en/projects/ocean-colour/news-and-events/news/ocean-colour-version-50-data-release/

https://docs.pml.space/share/s/okB2fOuPT7Cj2r4C5sppDg

Annual means for each LME for each year were calculated from the average of the LME 12 monthly means in that year on a pixel by pixel basis. Then for each year, the median average was taken spatially to yield one value per year per LME. 

 

Data background and limitations:

Satellite chlorophyll a data was extracted for each LME from the ESA OC-CCI v5.0 product. These 4 km mapped, monthly composited data were - averaged over each year to produce pixel by pixel annual composites, then the spatial median was calculated  for each LME, resulting in one value per year per LME.   This technique was used for each LME from North America and Hawaii. Phytoplankton concentrations are highly variable (spatially and temporally), largely driven by changing oceanographic conditions and seasonal variability.   

 

Zooplankton - Hawai'i Station ALOHA

Between 2015 and 2019 the average concentration of zooplankton biomass in Hawai'i - Pacific Islands waters was lower than the median value of all zooplankton biomass concentration levels between 1994 and 2019. 

HI Zoo

Description of time series:

Between 2015 through 2019 the average concentration of zooplankton biomass showed a significant downward trend.

 

Description of gauge:

The gauge value of 27 indicates that between 2015 and 2019 the average concentration of zooplankton biomass in Hawai'i - Pacific Islands waters was lower than the median value of all zooplankton biomass concentration levels between 1994 and 2019. 

 

Gauge values

High values of zooplankton can be good (lots of lipid rich colder water species) or bad (lots of lipid poor warmer water species), depending on the region.

 

0 - 10: The five-year zooplankton biomass average is very low compared to the median value.

10 - 25: The five-year zooplankton biomass average is much lower than the median value.

25 - 50: The five-year zooplankton biomass average is lower than the median value.

 50: The five-year zooplankton biomass average equals the median value.

50 - 75: The five-year zooplankton biomass average is higher than the median value.

75 - 90: The five-year zooplankton biomass average is much higher than the median value.

90 - 100: The five-year zooplankton biomass average is very high compared to the median value.

 

Description of Zooplankton:

Zooplankton are a diverse group of animals found in oceans, bays, and estuaries. By eating phytoplankton, and each other, zooplankton play a significant role in the transfer of materials and energy up the oceanic food web (e.g., fish, birds, marine mammals, humans.) Like phytoplankton, environmental and oceanographic factors continuously influence the abundance, composition and spatial distribution of zooplankton. These include the abundance and type of phytoplankton present in the water, as well as the water’s temperature, salinity, oxygen, and pH. Zooplankton can rapidly react to changes in their environment. For this reason monitoring the status of zooplankton is essential for detecting changes in, and evaluating the status of ocean ecosystems. We present the annual average total biovolume of zooplankton in the Alaska, California Current, Gulf of Mexico, Hawai'i-Pacific Islands and Northeast regions.

 

Indicator information

Zooplankton data for each region were obtained from the NOAA Fisheries Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observations Database, an integrated data set of quality-controlled, globally distributed plankton biomass and abundance data with common biomass units and served in a common electronic format with supporting documentation and access software. Hawai'i-Pacific Islands  specific data comes from the Hawai’i Ocean Timeseries (HOTS) program: https://hahana.soest.hawaii.edu/hot/

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Note that Hawai’i is Wet Mass (g/m3) , not DV (ml/m3).  

Zooplankton data for each region were obtained from the NOAA Fisheries Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observations Database, an integrated data set of quality-controlled, globally distributed plankton biomass and abundance data with common biomass units and served in a common electronic format with supporting documentation and access software. Source: https://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/copepod/about/about-copepod.html

Coral Reefs - Hawai'i Main islands

The Main Hawaiian Islands coral reefs score 71, meaning some indicators meet reference values

HI Corals

Data Interpretation:

The scores you see for each region are composite scores for the themes and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for the Main Hawaiian Islands region’s coral reef ecosystem score. 

Benthic – Composite gauge for benthic theme score in the Main Hawaiian Islands region is 65%, meaning it is ranked impaired with very few indicators meeting reference values.

Fish – Composite gauge for fish theme score in the Main Hawaiian Islands region is 66%, meaning it is ranked impaired with very few indicators meeting reference value.

Climate – Composite gauge for climate theme score in the Main Hawaiian Islands region is 70%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Human connections – Composite gauge for human connections theme score in the Main Hawaiian Islands region is 81%, meaning it is ranked good with most indicators meeting reference values.

Overall Ecosystem – Overall coral reef ecosystem score for the Main Hawaiian Islands region is 71%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

 

Description of each theme is provided in the indicator information section below.

Gauge values

90–100% Very good: All or almost all indicators meet reference values.

80–89% Good: Most indicators meet reference values.

70–79% Fair: Some indicators meet reference values. 

60–69% Impaired: Few indicators meet reference values.

0–59% Critical: Very few or no indicators meet reference values.

 

Description of Main Hawaiian Islands

The Hawaiian Archipelago includes the state of Hawai‘i and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The archipelago consists of volcanic islands, atolls, and seamounts that stretch over 1,500 miles from southeast to northwest. The NCRMP status report has two main Hawaiian regions, the Main Hawaiian Islands (the State of Hawai‘i) and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The Main Hawaiian Islands are inhabited islands in the Pacific Ocean. The Islands consist of eight volcanic islands surrounded by coral reefs. The Main Hawaiian Islands were further subdivided into four regions based on geographic location and data availability. The four regions are O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, Maui Nui, and Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau. The total coral reef hardbottom habitat less than 30 m in depth that was monitored is 974 sq km

 

Description of Coral Reefs:

Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems on Earth. Though they cover less than one percent of the Earth’s surface, they are estimated to provide ecosystem services (economic and environmental services) worth hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Healthy reefs protect islands and coasts from storm surge, contribute to local economies through tourism (i.e., sportfishing, snorkeling, and diving), and contribute about one-quarter of the total fish catch, providing critical food resources for tens of millions of people particularly in developing island nations.

 

Data Source:

The coral reef ecosystem scores shown here were analyzed using data from the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The scores you see for each region are composite scores for all four themes (benthic, fish, climate, human connections) assessed separately and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for a specific region’s coral reef ecosystem score. The sources for these values and geographical regions are obtained from the NCRMP’s Status Report Scoring Methodology for Pacific Jurisdictions and 2020 Status Report Scoring Methodology for Atlantic Jurisdictions. The definitions for the themes are as follows:

- Benthic (Corals & algae): Corals and algae make up the base of the coral reef ecosystem, providing food and shelter for fish and other marine animals.

- Fish: Coral reefs serve a vital ecological role for fish species. Fish are important to the ecology of the reef, the economy, and the livelihoods of local communities.

- Climate: Climate affects all components of a reef system. Climate change and ocean acidification influence reefs across the globe, but conditions vary at the regional and local level.

- Human Connections: Coral reef management agencies protect reef resources through management plans, public education, and involving communities in managing their resources.

 

Coral Reefs - Northwest Hawaiian Islands

The Northwest Hawaiian Islands coral reefs score 76, meaning some indicators meet reference values

NWHI Corals

Data Interpretation:

The scores you see for each region are composite scores for the themes and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands region’s coral reef ecosystem score. 

Benthic – Composite gauge for benthic theme score in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands region is 77%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Fish – Composite gauge for fish theme score in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands region is 92%, meaning it is ranked very good with all or almost all indicators meeting reference value.

Climate – Composite gauge for climate theme score in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands region is 58%, meaning it is ranked critical with very few indicators meeting reference values.

Human connections – Human connections theme was not scored for Northwestern Hawaiian Islands region because the region is uninhabited.

Overall Ecosystem – Overall coral reef ecosystem score for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands region is 76%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

 

Description of each theme is provided in the indicator information section below.

Gauge values

90–100% Very good: All or almost all indicators meet reference values.

80–89% Good: Most indicators meet reference values.

70–79% Fair: Some indicators meet reference values. 

60–69% Impaired: Few indicators meet reference values.

0–59% Critical: Very few or no indicators meet reference values.

 

Description of Northwest Hawaiian Islands

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are the mostly uninhabited northwestern three quarters of the Hawaiian Archipelago stretching 1,350 miles. They are completely encompassed within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and include coral islands, seamounts, banks, and shoals. The total coral reef hardbottom habitat less than 30 m in depth that was monitored is 911 sq km.

 

Description of Coral Reefs:

Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems on Earth. Though they cover less than one percent of the Earth’s surface, they are estimated to provide ecosystem services (economic and environmental services) worth hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Healthy reefs protect islands and coasts from storm surge, contribute to local economies through tourism (i.e., sportfishing, snorkeling, and diving), and contribute about one-quarter of the total fish catch, providing critical food resources for tens of millions of people particularly in developing island nations.

 

Data Source:

The coral reef ecosystem scores shown here were analyzed using data from the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The scores you see for each region are composite scores for all four themes (benthic, fish, climate, human connections) assessed separately and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for a specific region’s coral reef ecosystem score. The sources for these values and geographical regions are obtained from the NCRMP’s Status Report Scoring Methodology for Pacific Jurisdictions and 2020 Status Report Scoring Methodology for Atlantic Jurisdictions. The definitions for the themes are as follows:

- Benthic (Corals & algae): Corals and algae make up the base of the coral reef ecosystem, providing food and shelter for fish and other marine animals.

- Fish: Coral reefs serve a vital ecological role for fish species. Fish are important to the ecology of the reef, the economy, and the livelihoods of local communities.

- Climate: Climate affects all components of a reef system. Climate change and ocean acidification influence reefs across the globe, but conditions vary at the regional and local level.

- Human Connections: Coral reef management agencies protect reef resources through management plans, public education, and involving communities in managing their resources.

 

Coral Reefs - American Samoa

The American Samoa coral reefs score 80, meaning most indicators meet reference values

Samoa

Data Interpretation:

The scores you see for each region are composite scores for the themes and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for the American Samoa region’s coral reef ecosystem score. 

Benthic – Composite gauge for benthic theme score in the American Samoa region is 82%, meaning it is ranked good with most indicators meeting reference values.

Fish – Composite gauge for fish theme score in the American Samoa region is 73%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Climate – Composite gauge for climate theme score in the American Samoa region is 77%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Human connections – Composite gauge for human connections theme score in the American Samoa region is 88%, meaning it is ranked good with most indicators meeting reference values.

Overall Ecosystem – Overall coral reef ecosystem score for the American Samoa region is 80%, meaning it is ranked good with most indicators meeting reference values.

 

Description of each theme is provided in the indicator information section below.

Gauge values

90–100% Very good: All or almost all indicators meet reference values.

80–89% Good: Most indicators meet reference values.

70–79% Fair: Some indicators meet reference values. 

60–69% Impaired: Few indicators meet reference values.

0–59% Critical: Very few or no indicators meet reference values.

 

Description of American Samoa

American Samoa is an unincorporated United States Territory in the South Pacific. The Territory consists of five volcanic islands and two atolls, all of which are surrounded by fringing coral reefs. American Samoa was divided into six regions based on geographic location and data availability. The six regions are North Tutuila, South Tutuila, Ta‘u, Swains Island, Ofu and Olosega, and Muliava (Rose Atoll). The total coral reef hardbottom habitat less than 30 m in depth that was monitored is 62 sq km.

 

Data Source:

The coral reef ecosystem scores shown here were analyzed using data from the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The scores you see for each region are composite scores for all four themes (benthic, fish, climate, human connections) assessed separately and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for a specific region’s coral reef ecosystem score. The sources for these values and geographical regions are obtained from the NCRMP’s Status Report Scoring Methodology for Pacific Jurisdictions and 2020 Status Report Scoring Methodology for Atlantic Jurisdictions. The definitions for the themes are as follows:

- Benthic (Corals & algae): Corals and algae make up the base of the coral reef ecosystem, providing food and shelter for fish and other marine animals.

- Fish: Coral reefs serve a vital ecological role for fish species. Fish are important to the ecology of the reef, the economy, and the livelihoods of local communities.

- Climate: Climate affects all components of a reef system. Climate change and ocean acidification influence reefs across the globe, but conditions vary at the regional and local level.

- Human Connections: Coral reef management agencies protect reef resources through management plans, public education, and involving communities in managing their resources.

Coral Reefs - Northern Mariana Islands

The Northern Mariana Islands coral reefs score 78, meaning some indicators meet reference values

CNMI

Data Interpretation:

The scores you see for each region are composite scores for the themes and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for the Northern Mariana Islands region’s coral reef ecosystem score. 

Benthic – Composite gauge for benthic theme score in the Northern Mariana Islands region is 71%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Fish – Composite gauge for fish theme score in the Northern Mariana Islands region is 76%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Climate – Composite gauge for climate theme score in the Northern Mariana Islands region is 69%, meaning it is ranked impaired with very few indicators meeting reference values.

Human connections – Composite gauge for human connections theme score in the Northern Mariana Islands region is 97%, meaning it is ranked very good with all or almost all indicators meeting reference value.

Overall Ecosystem – Overall coral reef ecosystem score for the Northern Mariana Islands region is 78%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

 

Description of each theme is provided in the indicator information section below.

Gauge values

90–100% Very good: All or almost all indicators meet reference values.

80–89% Good: Most indicators meet reference values.

70–79% Fair: Some indicators meet reference values. 

60–69% Impaired: Few indicators meet reference values.

0–59% Critical: Very few or no indicators meet reference values.

 

Description of Northern Mariana Islands 

Located just north of Guam in the Western Pacific, the Northern Mariana Islands is a 300-mile archipelago consisting of 14 islands. Data for the Northern Mariana Islands status report were from four sub-regions: Rota, Saipan,Tinian, andAguijan, Northern Islands, and National Monument. The total coral reef hardbottom habitat less than 30 m in depth that was monitored is 105 sq km

 

Description of Coral Reefs:

Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems on Earth. Though they cover less than one percent of the Earth’s surface, they are estimated to provide ecosystem services (economic and environmental services) worth hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Healthy reefs protect islands and coasts from storm surge, contribute to local economies through tourism (i.e., sportfishing, snorkeling, and diving), and contribute about one-quarter of the total fish catch, providing critical food resources for tens of millions of people particularly in developing island nations.

 

Data Source:

The coral reef ecosystem scores shown here were analyzed using data from the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The scores you see for each region are composite scores for all four themes (benthic, fish, climate, human connections) assessed separately and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for a specific region’s coral reef ecosystem score. The sources for these values and geographical regions are obtained from the NCRMP’s Status Report Scoring Methodology for Pacific Jurisdictions and 2020 Status Report Scoring Methodology for Atlantic Jurisdictions. The definitions for the themes are as follows:

- Benthic (Corals & algae): Corals and algae make up the base of the coral reef ecosystem, providing food and shelter for fish and other marine animals.

- Fish: Coral reefs serve a vital ecological role for fish species. Fish are important to the ecology of the reef, the economy, and the livelihoods of local communities.

- Climate: Climate affects all components of a reef system. Climate change and ocean acidification influence reefs across the globe, but conditions vary at the regional and local level.

- Human Connections: Coral reef management agencies protect reef resources through management plans, public education, and involving communities in managing their resources.

 

Coral Reefs - Pacific Remote Islands

The Pacific Remote Islands coral reefs score 82, meaning most indicators meet reference values

PRI

Data Interpretation:

The scores you see for each region are composite scores for the themes and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for the Pacific Remote Islands region’s coral reef ecosystem score. 

Benthic – Composite gauge for benthic theme score in the Pacific Remote Islands region is 80%, meaning it is ranked good with most indicators meeting reference values.

Fish – Composite gauge for fish theme score in the Pacific Remote Islands region is 93%, meaning it is ranked very good with all or almost all indicators meeting reference value.

Climate – Composite gauge for climate theme score in the Pacific Remote Islands region is 74%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Human connections – Human connections theme was not scored for the Pacific Remote Islands region  because the region is uninhabited.

Overall Ecosystem – Overall coral reef ecosystem score for the Pacific Remote Islands region is 82%, meaning it is ranked good with most indicators meeting reference values.

 

Description of each theme is provided in the indicator information section below.

Gauge values

90–100% Very good: All or almost all indicators meet reference values.

80–89% Good: Most indicators meet reference values.

70–79% Fair: Some indicators meet reference values. 

60–69% Impaired: Few indicators meet reference values.

0–59% Critical: Very few or no indicators meet reference values.

 

Description of Pacific Remote Islands

The Pacific Remote Islands are a group of unincorporated US territories spread over hundreds of miles

in the Pacific Ocean. They consist of three islands, three atolls, and one reef, which are each national

wildlife refuges. These refuges make up the core of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National

Monument. The Pacific Remote Islands data were divided into five sub-regions from Johnston atoll, Kingman reef and Palmyra atoll, Howland and Baker islands, Jarvis island, and Wake atoll. The total coral reef hardbottom habitat less than 30 m in depth that was monitored is 128 sq km

 

Description of Coral Reefs:

Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems on Earth. Though they cover less than one percent of the Earth’s surface, they are estimated to provide ecosystem services (economic and environmental services) worth hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Healthy reefs protect islands and coasts from storm surge, contribute to local economies through tourism (i.e., sportfishing, snorkeling, and diving), and contribute about one-quarter of the total fish catch, providing critical food resources for tens of millions of people particularly in developing island nations.

 

Data Source:

The coral reef ecosystem scores shown here were analyzed using data from the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The scores you see for each region are composite scores for all four themes (benthic, fish, climate, human connections) assessed separately and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for a specific region’s coral reef ecosystem score. The sources for these values and geographical regions are obtained from the NCRMP’s Status Report Scoring Methodology for Pacific Jurisdictions and 2020 Status Report Scoring Methodology for Atlantic Jurisdictions. The definitions for the themes are as follows:

- Benthic (Corals & algae): Corals and algae make up the base of the coral reef ecosystem, providing food and shelter for fish and other marine animals.

- Fish: Coral reefs serve a vital ecological role for fish species. Fish are important to the ecology of the reef, the economy, and the livelihoods of local communities.

- Climate: Climate affects all components of a reef system. Climate change and ocean acidification influence reefs across the globe, but conditions vary at the regional and local level.

- Human Connections: Coral reef management agencies protect reef resources through management plans, public education, and involving communities in managing their resources.

 

Coral Reefs - Guam

The Guam coral reefs score 71, meaning some indicators meet reference values

GUam

Data Interpretation:

The scores you see for each region are composite scores for the themes and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for the Guam region’s coral reef ecosystem score. 

Benthic – Composite gauge for benthic theme score in the Guam region is 62%, meaning it is ranked impaired with very few indicators meeting reference values.

Fish – Composite gauge for fish theme score in the Guam region is 66%, meaning it is ranked impaired with very few indicators meeting reference values.

Climate – Composite gauge for climate theme score in the Guam region is 71%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

Human connections – Composite gauge for human connections theme score in the Guam region is 85%, meaning it is ranked good with most indicators meeting reference values.

Overall Ecosystem – Overall coral reef ecosystem score for the Guam region is 71%, meaning it is ranked fair with some indicators meeting reference values.

 

Description of each theme is provided in the indicator information section below.

Gauge values

90–100% Very good: All or almost all indicators meet reference values.

80–89% Good: Most indicators meet reference values.

70–79% Fair: Some indicators meet reference values. 

60–69% Impaired: Few indicators meet reference values.

0–59% Critical: Very few or no indicators meet reference values.

 

Description of Guam

Guam is an unincorporated territory of the US in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the largest and southernmost island of the Mariana Archipelago. Guam was divided into three sub-regions consisting of Western Guam, Eastern Guam, and the marine protected areas of Guam. The total coral reef hardbottom habitat less than 30 m in depth that was monitored is 51 sq km.

 

Data Source:

The coral reef ecosystem scores shown here were analyzed using data from the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The scores you see for each region are composite scores for all four themes (benthic, fish, climate, human connections) assessed separately and then one overall score. The overall score is an average of all four theme scores for a specific region’s coral reef ecosystem score. The sources for these values and geographical regions are obtained from the NCRMP’s Status Report Scoring Methodology for Pacific Jurisdictions and 2020 Status Report Scoring Methodology for Atlantic Jurisdictions. The definitions for the themes are as follows:

- Benthic (Corals & algae): Corals and algae make up the base of the coral reef ecosystem, providing food and shelter for fish and other marine animals.

- Fish: Coral reefs serve a vital ecological role for fish species. Fish are important to the ecology of the reef, the economy, and the livelihoods of local communities.

- Climate: Climate affects all components of a reef system. Climate change and ocean acidification influence reefs across the globe, but conditions vary at the regional and local level.

- Human Connections: Coral reef management agencies protect reef resources through management plans, public education, and involving communities in managing their resources.

Overfished Stocks - Hawai'i

Between 2017 and 2022 the number of overfished stocks shows no trend.

Over HI

The x-axis represents years. The y-axis represents the number of fish stocks or fish populations that are deemed by NOAA as overfished. Overfished means the population of fish is too low. Therefore the population cannot support a large amount of fishing. This indicator does not count Pacific Island-specific complexes.

 

Description of time series:

The series shows the number of fish populations that have been listed as overfished since 2000. Between 2017 and 2022 the number of overfished stocks shows no trend.

 

Description of Overfished stocks:

An overfished stock is a population of fish that is too low. Therefore the population can not support a large amount of fishing. A fish population can be “overfished” as the result of many factors, including overfishing, as well as habitat degradation, pollution, climate change, and disease. Stocks are determined to be overfished by NOAA as mandated in the Magnuson-Stevens Act, based on the results of stock assessments .

 

 

Overall Scores mean the following:

High values for overfished stocks are bad, low numbers are good.

  • 0 - 10: The five-year overfished stock status average is very low compared to the median value.
  • 10 - 25: The five-year overfished stock status average is much lower than the median value.
  • 25 - 50: The five-year overfished stock status average is lower than the median value.
  • 50: The five-year overfished stock status average equals the median value.
  • 50 - 75: The five-year overfished stock status average is higher than the median value.
  • 75 - 90: The five-year overfished stock status average is much higher than the median value.
  • 90 - 100: The five-year overfished stock status average is very high compared to the median value.

 

Data Source:

Data were obtained from the NOAA Fisheries Fishery Stock Status website. Stocks that met the criteria for overfished status were summed by year for each region.

Endangered Species Act Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals

Gauge and Trend Analyses were not appropriate for marine mammal data.

Hawaii

Values Correspond to the Number of ESA Threatened or Endangered Species in a given region

Data Interpretation

Gauge and Trend Analyses were not appropriate for marine mammal data.

 

Description of Threatened and Endangered Marine Mammals (ESA):

NOAA Fisheries is responsible for the protection, conservation, and recovery of endangered and threatened marine and anadromous species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The ESA aims to conserve these species and the ecosystems they depend on. Under the ESA, a species is considered endangered if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, or threatened if it is likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range See a species directory of all the threatened and endangered marine species under NOAA Fisheries jurisdiction, including marine mammals. 

Under the ESA, a species must be listed if it is threatened or endangered because of any of the following 5 factors:

1) Present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range;

2) Over-utilization of the species for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes;

3) Disease or predation;

4) Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; and

5) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence.

The ESA requires that listing determinations be based solely on the best scientific and commercial information available; economic impacts are not considered in making species listing determinations and are prohibited under the ESA. There are two ways by which a species may come to be listed (or delisted) under the ESA:

- NOAA Fisheries receives a petition from a person or organization requesting that NOAA lists a species as threatened or endangered, reclassify a species, or delist a species.

- NOAA Fisheries voluntarily chooses to examine the status of a species by initiating a status review of a species.

 

Data Background and Caveats

NOAA Fisheries goes through required regulatory steps to list, reclassify, or delist a species under the ESA. For more information, see a step-by-step description of the ESA listing process. The listing process requires time and resources; as a result, the timing and number of listed marine species is not necessarily indicative of the actual number of currently endangered or threatened species and the exact timing of when these species became eligible to be listed under the ESA. Many marine species were initially listed when the ESA was passed in 1973; others have taken more time to be listed, and some have been reclassified or delisted since then.

Marine Mammal Protection Act Strategic/Depleted Marine Mammal Stocks

Gauge and Trend Analyses were not appropriate for marine mammal data.

HI

Values correspond to the number of MMPA Strategic or Depleted Marine Mammal Species listed each year in each region

 

Data Interpretation

Gauge and Trend Analyses were not appropriate for marine mammal data.

 

Description of Marine Mammal Strategic and Depleted Stocks (MMPA):

A stock is defined by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as a group of marine mammals of the same species or smaller taxa in a common spatial arrangement, that interbreed when mature. See a list of the marine mammal stocks NOAA protects under the MMPA.

 

A strategic stock is defined by the MMPA as a marine mammal stock—

- For which the level of direct human-caused mortality exceeds the potential biological removal level or PBR (defined by the MMPA as the maximum number of animals, not including natural mortalities, that may be removed from a marine mammal stock while allowing that stock to reach or maintain its optimum sustainable population); 

- Which, based on the best available scientific information, is declining and is likely to be listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) within the foreseeable future; or 

- Which is listed as a threatened or endangered species under the ESA, or is designated as depleted under the MMPA. 

 

A depleted stock is defined by the MMPA as any case in which—

- The Secretary of Commerce, after consultation with the Marine Mammal Commission and the Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals established under MMPA title II, determines that a species or population stock is below its optimum sustainable population; 

- A State, to which authority for the conservation and management of a species or population stock is transferred under section 109, determines that such species or stock is below its optimum sustainable population; or 

- A species or population stock is listed as an endangered species or a threatened species under the ESA. 

 

Data Background and Caveats

NOAA Fisheries prepares marine mammal stock assessment reports to track the status of marine mammal stocks. Some marine mammal stocks are thriving, while others are declining, and we often don’t know all the reasons behind a species or stock’s population trend. Because of this variability, it is difficult to indicate the state of an ecosystem or specific region using stock assessment data for marine mammal species that often range across multiple ecosystems and regions.

Coastal Population

The coastal population between 2014 and 2019 for Hawai’i was higher than 96% of the coastal population values between 1970 and 2019.

HIPop

Values correspond to the total coastal population for a given region

 

Time Series

The 2014 – 2019 average coastal population in Hawaii was substantially above historic levels, although the recent trend is not different from historical trends.   

Gauge

The gauge value of 96 indicates that the coastal population between 2014 and 2019 for Hawai’i was higher than 96% of the coastal population values between 1970 and 2019.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average coastal population over the last 5 years of data was below any annual population level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any annual population level up until that point.

 

Indicator Source Information:

The American Community Survey (ACS) helps local officials, community leaders, and businesses understand the changes taking place in their communities. It is the premier source for detailed population and housing information about our nation. 

Data Background and Caveats:

The values represented here are coastal county population estimates for states bordering US Large Marine Ecosystems as calculated by the US Census Bureau from the American Community Survey.

Coastal Tourism GDP - Hawai'i

Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county tourism sector GDP was much higher than the median change in coastal county tourism sector GDP between 2006 and 2018.

HIGDP

Values correspond to percent change in the GDP of the Tourism Sector of Coastal Counties in US States that border a region

 

Description of Time Series: Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county tourism GDP showed an increasing trend.

Description of Gauge: The gauge value of 77 indicates that between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county tourism sector GDP was much higher than the median change in coastal county tourism sector GDP between 2006 and 2018.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average coastal tourism GDP over the last 5 years of data was below any annual coastal tourism GDP level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any annual coastal tourism GDP value up until that point.

 

Indicator Source Information

Coastal tourism Gross Domestic Product is the total measure (in billions of 2012 dollars) of goods and services provided from various industries involved in tourism services and products along the coast. Data for Coastal Counties come from the US Census Bureau. This dataset represents US counties and independent cities which have at least one coastal border and select non-coastal counties and independent cities based on proximity to estuaries and other coastal counties. The dataset is built to support coastal and ocean planning and other activities pursuant to the Energy Policy Act, Coastal Zone Management Act, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, National Environmental Policy Act, Rivers and Harbors Act and the Submerged Lands Act.

 

Coastal Tourism Employment - Hawai'i

Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county tourism sector employment was lower than the median change in coastal county tourism sector employment between 2006 and 2018.

HIEMP

Values correspond to percent change in the total Employment of the Tourism Sector of Coastal Counties in US States that border a region

 

Description of Time Series: Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county employment showed no significant trend.

Description of Gauge: Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county tourism sector employment was lower than the median change in coastal county tourism sector employment between 2006 and 2018.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average coastal tourism employment over the last 5 years of data was below any annual coastal tourism employment level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any annual coastal tourism employment level up until that point.

 

Indicator Source Information:

Coastal tourism employment is the total measure of jobs in tourism industries along the coast.  Data for Coastal Counties come from the US Census Bureau. This dataset represents US counties and independent cities which have at least one coastal border and select non-coastal counties and independent cities based on proximity to estuaries and other coastal counties. The dataset is built to support coastal and ocean planning and other activities pursuant to the Energy Policy Act, Coastal Zone Management Act, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, National Environmental Policy Act, Rivers and Harbors Act and the Submerged Lands Act.

Coastal Tourism Wages - Hawai'i

Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county tourism sector real wage compensation was higher than the median change in coastal county tourism sector real wage compensation between 2006 and 2018.

HIWage

Values correspond to percent change in the total real wage compensation of the Tourism Sector of Coastal Counties in US States that border a region

 

Description of Time Series: Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county real wage compensation showed no significant trend.

Description of Gauge: Between 2014 and 2018 the average change in coastal county tourism sector real wage compensation was higher than the median change in coastal county tourism sector real wage compensation between 2006 and 2018.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average coastal tourism wage compensation over the last 5 years of data was below any annual coastal tourism wage compensation level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any annual coastal tourism wage compensation level up until that point.

 

Description of Coastal Tourism:

U.S. coasts are host to a multitude of travel, tourism, and recreation activities. To manage our coasts, plan for development, and assess impacts as a result of coastal hazards including sea level rise, it is important to have baseline economic information. To accomplish this, we need indicators of the economic value of recreation and tourism. We present the annual total change in billions of dollars of goods and services (GDP), employment and annual wages provided from tourism industries in the Gulf of Mexico, Mid-Atlantic, Northeast, Hawaii-Pacific Islands, Southeast, and California Current regions. This data does not include industries located in U.S. territories. 

 

Indicator Source Information:

Coastal tourism wage is the measure of wages (nominal) paid to employees in tourism industries along the coast. Data for Coastal Counties come from the US Census Bureau. This dataset represents US counties and independent cities which have at least one coastal border and select non-coastal counties and independent cities based on proximity to estuaries and other coastal counties. The dataset is built to support coastal and ocean planning and other activities pursuant to the Energy Policy Act, Coastal Zone Management Act, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, National Environmental Policy Act, Rivers and Harbors Act and the Submerged Lands Act.

Coastal Employment - Hawai'i

Coastal employment between 2014 and 2019 for Hawaii and the Pacific Islands was higher than 80% of all years between 2005 and 2019.

HIEmp

Values correspond to total employment in all industries in the coastal counties of a given region

 

Time Series

Hawaii’s average coastal employment between 2014 and 2019 was similar to historical levels, although no trend is apparent over that same period.

Gauge

The gauge value of 80 indicates that coastal employment between 2014 and 2019 for Hawaii and the Pacific Islands was higher than 80% of all years between 2005 and 2019.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average coastal employment level over the last 5 years of data was below any annual employment level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any annual employment level up until that point.

 

Data Source:

Coastal employment numbers were downloaded from the NOAA ENOW Explorer Tool, filtered to present only coastal county values using the Census Bureau’s list of coastal counties within each state. ENOW Explorer streamlines the task of obtaining and comparing economic data, both county and state, for the six sectors dependent on the ocean and Great Lakes: living resources, marine construction, marine transportation, offshore mineral resources, ship and boat building, and tourism and recreation. Data are derived from Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW), available on NOAA’s Digital Coast. Of note is that these data fail to include self-employed individuals. Coastal county employment numbers were then summed within each region for reporting purposes.

 

Commercial Fishery Landings - Hawai'i

The mean annual commercial landings between 2016 and 2021 for Hawaii and the Pacific Islands was higher than 73% of all years between 1981 and 2020.

HIland

Values correspond to landings in millions of metric tons

 

Commercial Landings Time Series

Commercial landings from Hawai’i between 2016 and 2021 were similar to historical patterns of landings, with a downward trend apparent.   

Commercial Landings Gauge

The gauge value of 73 indicates that the mean annual commercial landings between 2016 and 2021 for Hawaii and the Pacific Islands was higher than 73% of all years between 1981 and 2021.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average revenue or landings over the last 5 years of data was below any annual value up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average value over that same period was above any annual value up until that point.

 

Indicator Source Information:

Landings are reported in pounds of round (live) weight for all species or groups except univalve and bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, which are reported as pounds of meats (excludes shell weight). Landings data may sometimes differ from state-reported landings due to our reporting of mollusks in meat weights rather than gallons, shell weight, or bushels. Also, NMFS includes some species such as kelp and oysters that are sometimes reported by state agricultural agencies and may not be included with state fishery agency landings data.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

All landings summaries will return only non confidential landing statistics. Federal statutes prohibit public disclosure of landings (or other information) that would allow identification of the data contributors and possibly put them at a competitive disadvantage. Most summarized landings are non confidential, but whenever confidential landings occur they have been combined with other landings and usually reported as "Withheld for Confidentiality" Total landings by state include confidential data and will be accurate, but landings reported by individual species may, in some instances, be misleading due to data confidentiality.

Landings data do not indicate the physical location of harvest but the location at which the landings either first crossed the dock or were reported from.

Many fishery products are gutted or otherwise processed while at sea and are landed in a product type other than round (whole) weight. Our data partners have standard conversion factors for the majority of the commonly caught species that convert their landing weights from any product type to whole weight. It is the whole weight that is displayed in our web site landing statistics. Caution should be exercised when using these statistics. An example of a potential problem is when landings statistics are used to monitor fishery quotas. In some situations, specific conversion factors may have been designated in fishery management plans or Federal rule making that differ from those historically used by NOAA Fisheries in reporting landings statistics.

The dollar value of the landings are ex-vessel (as paid to the fisherman at time of first sale) and are reported as nominal (current at the time of reporting) values. Users can use the Consumer Price Index (CPI) or the Producer Price Index (PPI) to convert these nominal landing values into real (deflated) values.

Landings do not include aquaculture products except for clams, mussels and oysters.

Pacific landings summarized by state include an artificial “state” designation of “At-Sea Process, Pac.” This designation was assigned to landings consisting of primarily whiting caught in the EEZ off Washington and Oregon that were processed aboard large vessels while at sea. No Pacific state lists these fish on their trip tickets which are used to report state fishery landing, hence the at-sea processor designation was used to insure that they would be listed as a U.S. landing.

Landing summaries are compiled from data bases that overlap in time and geographic coverage, and come from both within and outside of NOAA Fisheries. 

 

Commercial Fishing Revenue - Hawai'i

The mean annual commercial revenue between 2015 and 2020 for Hawai’i and the Pacific Islands was higher than 80% of all years between 1981 and 2020.

HIRev

Values correspond to real revenue is 2021 US Dollars

 

Commercial Revenue Time Series

Commercial landings from Hawai’i between 2015 and 2020 were similar to historical patterns of landings, with a downward trend apparent.   

Commercial Revenue Gauge

The gauge value of 80 indicates that the mean annual commercial revenue between 2015 and 2020 for Hawai’i and the Pacific Islands was higher than 80% of all years between 1981 and 2020.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average revenue or landings over the last 5 years of data was below any annual value up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average value over that same period was above any annual value up until that point.

 

Indicator Source Information:

Landings are reported in pounds of round (live) weight for all species or groups except univalve and bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, which are reported as pounds of meats (excludes shell weight). Landings data may sometimes differ from state-reported landings due to our reporting of mollusks in meat weights rather than gallons, shell weight, or bushels. Also, NMFS includes some species such as kelp and oysters that are sometimes reported by state agricultural agencies and may not be included with state fishery agency landings data.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

All landings summaries will return only non confidential landing statistics. Federal statutes prohibit public disclosure of landings (or other information) that would allow identification of the data contributors and possibly put them at a competitive disadvantage. Most summarized landings are non confidential, but whenever confidential landings occur they have been combined with other landings and usually reported as "Withheld for Confidentiality" Total landings by state include confidential data and will be accurate, but landings reported by individual species may, in some instances, be misleading due to data confidentiality.

Landings data do not indicate the physical location of harvest but the location at which the landings either first crossed the dock or were reported from.

Many fishery products are gutted or otherwise processed while at sea and are landed in a product type other than round (whole) weight. Our data partners have standard conversion factors for the majority of the commonly caught species that convert their landing weights from any product type to whole weight. It is the whole weight that is displayed in our web site landing statistics. Caution should be exercised when using these statistics. An example of a potential problem is when landings statistics are used to monitor fishery quotas. In some situations, specific conversion factors may have been designated in fishery management plans or Federal rule making that differ from those historically used by NOAA Fisheries in reporting landings statistics.

The dollar value of the landings are ex-vessel (as paid to the fisherman at time of first sale) and are reported as nominal (current at the time of reporting) values. Users can use the Consumer Price Index (CPI) or the Producer Price Index (PPI) to convert these nominal landing values into real (deflated) values.

Landings do not include aquaculture products except for clams, mussels and oysters.

Pacific landings summarized by state include an artificial “state” designation of “At-Sea Process, Pac.” This designation was assigned to landings consisting of primarily whiting caught in the EEZ off Washington and Oregon that were processed aboard large vessels while at sea. No Pacific state lists these fish on their trip tickets which are used to report state fishery landing, hence the at-sea processor designation was used to insure that they would be listed as a U.S. landing.

Landing summaries are compiled from data bases that overlap in time and geographic coverage, and come from both within and outside of NOAA Fisheries. 

Recreational Fishing Effort - Hawai'i

The recreational fishing effort between 2015 and 2020 for Hawaiʻi was higher than 72% of the recreational fishing effort values between 2003 and 2020.

Receff

Values correspond to cumulative number of angler trips

 

Description of time series:

Between 2015 and 2020, average recreational fishing effort in the Hawaiʻi is around historic levels although the most recent three years present the highest effort in the historical series and shows a significant upward trend.  

 

Description of gauge:

The gauge value of 72 indicates that the recreational fishing effort between 2015 and 2020 for Hawaiʻi was higher than 72% of the recreational fishing effort values between 2003 and 2020.

 

 Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average effort or harvest over the last 5 years of data was below any annual value up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average value over that same period was above any annual value up until that point.

 

Indicator Source Information

Recreational harvest and effort data pulled from National Summary Query. Units of data are in Effort in Angler Trips and Harvest in numbers of fish.The data from these queries is used by state, regional and federal fisheries scientists and managers to maintain healthy and sustainable fish stocks.

Data Background and Caveats:

To properly interpret this information, it is important to consider the following key points:

  • When comparing harvest estimates across an extended time series, note differences in sampling coverage through the years. Some estimates may not be comparable over long time series.
  • Changes may occur between preliminary and final estimates and year to year, meaning that the data may change when updated. Please review the Limitations and other sections on the Using the Data page from the source for more information.

 

Recreational Fishing Harvest - Hawai'i

The recreational fishing harvest between 2016 and 2020 for Hawaii and the Pacific Islands was higher than 78% of the recreational fishing harvest values between 2003 and 2020

RecHar

Values correspond to harvest in millions of fish

 

Description of time series:

Between 2016 and 2020, recreational harvest from Hawaii are around historic levels. There is a significant upward trend apparent. 

 

Description of gauge:

The gauge value of 78 indicates that the recreational fishing harvest between 2016 and 2020 for Hawaii and the Pacific Islands was higher than 78% of the recreational fishing harvest values between 2003 and 2020

 

 Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average effort or harvest over the last 5 years of data was below any annual value up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average value over that same period was above any annual value up until that point.

 

Description of Recreational Fishing (Effort and Harvest):

U.S. saltwater recreational fishing is an important source of seafood, jobs, and recreation for millions of anglers and for-hire recreational businesses. Recreational fishing effort is measured as “Angler Trips”, which is the number of recreational fishing trips people go on. Recreational fishing harvest is the number of fish caught and brought to shore on recreational fishing trips. 

Recreational effort and harvest help us understand how recreational opportunities and seafood derived from our marine environment is changing over time. Fisheries managers use this data to set annual catch limits and fishing regulations, including season lengths, size, and daily catch limits. We present the total number of fish harvested and angler trips annually for all marine fish in all regions. 

 

Indicator Source Information

Recreational harvest and effort data pulled from National Summary Query. Units of data are in Effort in Angler Trips and Harvest in numbers of fish. The data from these queries is used by state, regional and federal fisheries scientists and managers to maintain healthy and sustainable fish stocks.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

To properly interpret this information, it is important to consider the following key points:

  • When comparing catch estimates across an extended time series, note differences in sampling coverage through the years. Some estimates may not be comparable over long time series.
  • Changes may occur between preliminary and final estimates and year to year, meaning that the data may change when updated. Please review the Limitations and other sections on the Using the Data page from the source for more information.

 

Commercial Fishing Engagement

Between 2014 and 2019 the percent of communities moderately or highly engaged in commercial fishing showed a downward trend. 

CommEng

The x-axis on this time series represents years and the y-axis represents the percent of communities that are moderate to highly engaged in commercial fishing across Hawaiʻi - Pacific Islands. Commercial fishing engagement is measured by the number of permits, fish dealers, and vessel landings across Hawaiʻi-Pacific Islands . 

 

Description of time series:

This time series shows the percent of communities moderately or highly engaged in commercial fishing in Hawaiʻi from 2009 to 2019. Between 2014 and 2019 (highlighted in green) the percent of communities moderately or highly engaged in commercial fishing showed a downward trend. 

 

Description of gauge:

The gauge value of 36 indicates that the average annual commercial fishing engagement between 2014 and 2019 for Hawaiʻi was higher than 36% of all years in the time series.

 

Description of Hawaiʻi Commercial Fishing Engagement:

 

Commercial fishing engagement is measured by the presence of fishing activity in coastal communities. The commercial engagement index is measured through permits, fish dealers, and vessel landings. A high rank within these indicates more engagement in fisheries. For details on both data sources and indicator development, please see https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/national/socioeconomics/social-indicator….

 

NOAA Monitors commercial fishing engagement to better understand the social and economic impacts of fishing policies and regulations on our nation’s vital fishing communities. This and other social indicators help assess a coastal community’s resilience. NOAA works with state and local partners to monitor these indicators. We present data from the Northeast, Southeast, Gulf of Mexico, California Current, Alaska, and Hawaiian Island regions.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average percentage of communities engaged in commercial or recreational fishing over the last 5 years of data was below any annual engagement level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any engagement level up until that point.

 

Data Source:

Commercial fishing engagement data is from the National Marine Fisheries Service’s social indicator data portal:https://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/data-and-tools/social-indicators/ The percentage of all communities in each region classified as medium, medium high, or highly engaged is presented for both recreational and commercial fishing.

 

Recreational Fishing Engagement

The gauge value of 40  indicates that the average annual recreational fishing engagement between 2014 and 2019 for Hawai’i was only higher than 40% of all years between 2010 and 2019.

RecEng

The x-axis on this time series represents years and the y-axis represents the percent of communities that are moderately to highly engaged in recreational fishing across Hawai’i.

 

recreational Engagement Time Series

This time series shows the percent of communities moderately to highly engaged in recreational fishing in Hawai’i from 2010 to 2019. Between 2014 and 2019 (highlighted in green) the percent of communities moderately or highly engaged in recreational fishing showed a downward trend.

recreational Engagement Gauge

The gauge value of 40  indicates that the average annual recreational fishing engagement between 2014 and 2019 for Hawai’i was only higher than 40% of all years between 2010 and 2019.

 

Extreme Gauge values:

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average percentage of communities engaged in commercial or recreational fishing over the last 5 years of data was below any annual engagement level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any engagement level up until that point.

 

Indicator Source Information:

The Hawai'i recreational engagement index is measured using the number of trips for charter, private recreational, shore and all modes combined.

 

Data Source:

Commercial fishing engagement data is from the National Marine Fisheries Service’s social indicator data portal:https://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/data-and-tools/social-indicators/ The percentage of all communities in each region classified as medium, medium high, or highly engaged is presented for both recreational and commercial fishing

Beach Closures - Hawai'i

Between 2017 and 2021 the average number of beach closure days in the Hawaiian Islands region was higher than 86% of all values from 2000 to 2021.

HiBEach

Beach closures are the number of days when beach water quality is determined to be unsafe.

 

Data Interpretation:

Time series: This time series shows the average number of beach closure days in the Hawaiian Islands region from 2000 to 2021. During the last five years, while there has been a significant upward trend, values have remained within the 10th and 90th percentiles of all observed data in the time series.

Gauge: The gauge value of 86 indicates that between 2017 and 2021 the average number of beach closure days in the Hawaiian Islands region was higher than 86% of all values from 2000 to 2021.

 

Gauge values

0–10: The five-year beach closure days average is very low compared to the median value.

10–25: The five-year beach closure days average is much lower than the median value.

25–50: The five-year beach closure days average is lower than the median value.

50: The five-year beach closure days average equals the median value.

50–75: The five-year beach closure days average is higher than the median value.

75–90: The five-year beach closure days average is much higher than the median value.

90–100: The five-year beach closure days average is very high compared to the median. 

 

* gauge value is the percentile rank of the last five years based on the time series.

 

Indicator and source information:

Unsafe water quality may have significant impacts on human health, local economies, and the ecosystem. Beach water quality is determined by the concentration of bacteria in the water (either Enterococcus sp. or Escherichia coli). 

 

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports coastal states, counties and tribes in monitoring beach water quality, and notifying the public when beaches must be closed. The information presented is from states, counties, and tribes that submit data to the EPA Beach Program reporting database (BEACON). Data obtained from the EPA BEACON 2.0 website have been provided to EPA by the coastal and Great Lakes states, tribes and territories that receive grants under the BEACH Act. Data were refined to closure, by state or territory, by year.

 

Data background and limitations:

Data compiled by states or territories are combined in regions defined as US Large Marine Ecosystems (LME). Changes in the number of beach closure days may be driven by changes in the number of beaches monitored under the BEACH Act versus by state and local municipalities and not by changes in water and/or air quality. Not all US beach closures are captured in this database, because not all beaches in a state or territory are monitored through the EPA BEACH Act. Data that were not identified to a water body or identified as inland water were not included. Data for beaches monitored by state and local municipalities are not included. 

Data from 2020 and beyond may be inflated by the Covid-19 pandemic, as there was no consistent way for states to report pandemic-related closures.

 

Billion-Dollar Disasters - Hawai'i

There were no billion dollar disasters in Hawaii between 2016 and 2021, similar to 98% of all years between 1980 and 2020.

Billion

Values correspond to the number of events in a given year

 

Time Series

Billion dollar disasters in Hawaii are infrequent, with only one disaster of that magnitude being recorded between 1980 and 2021. There is no trend in the number of disasters.    

Gauge

There were no billion dollar disasters in Hawaii between 2016 and 2021, similar to 98% of all years between 1980 and 2020.

 

Extreme Gauge values

A value of zero on the gauge means that the average number of disasters over the last 5 years of data was below any annual level up until that point, while a value of 100 would indicate the average over that same period was above any annual number of disasters up until that point. 

 

Indicator Source Information:

Billion dollar disaster event frequency data are taken from NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information. The number of disasters within each region were summed for every year of available data. Although the number is the count of unique disaster events within a region, the same disaster can impact multiple regions, meaning a sum across regions will overestimate the unique number of disasters.

 

Data Background and Caveats:

Events are included if they are estimated to cause more than one billion U.S. dollars in direct losses. The cost estimates of these events are adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and are based on costs documented in several Federal and private-sector databases.

Resources

West Hawaii Integrated Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystem Status Report

The Ecosystem Status Report summarizes a suite of ecosystem indicators that track the status of the region’s marine ecosystem. 

IEA

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument 2020 Condition Report

This “condition report” provides a summary of resources in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, which is co-managed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the State of Hawaii. 

NMS

Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary condition report

This report provides a summary of resources in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, pressures on those resources, the current condition and trends, and management responses to the pressures that threaten the integrity of the marine environment.

NMS

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Conservation Program is investing approximately $4.5 million of its annual operating budget to support a National Coral Reef Monitoring Plan (NCRMP) for biological, physical, and socioeconomic monitoring throughout the U.S. Pacific, Atlantic, and Caribbean coral reef areas.

CRCP

Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS)

The Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) aims to promote a safe, healthy and productive ocean and resilient coastal zone, PacIOOS collects real-time data on ocean conditions, forecasts future events, and develops user-friendly tools to access this information. In collaboration with a large network of partners, PacIOOS helps inform decision-making in Pacific communities on a daily basis.

PACIOOS

NOAA Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA): Regional Portals

The Environmental Response Management Application is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists emergency responders and environmental resource managers in dealing with incidents that may adversely impact the environment.

NOAA

Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary 2010 Condition Report

The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (sanctuary) was designated to protect the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and its habitat in Hawai'i. The sanctuary enables citizens and government to work collectively on safeguarding humpback whale breeding and calving range in waters around the main Hawaiian Islands.

NMS

Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands

The state of Hawai'i is working to develop local renewable energy sources to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Most of the State's potential renewable energy resources (notably, wind) are located in federal waters from 3 to 200 nm offshore. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) regulates the leasing, construction and operation of most renewable energy projects in federal waters, and is required to evaluate potential human, coastal and marine impacts from these projects. BOEM partnered with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) to gather biogeographic information in support of this evaluation around the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI).

NOAA